Ancient Sanskrit Literature, Treatises & Pre 10th Century History

age-of-imperial-unity-by-bharatiya-vidya-bhavan1

Age of imperial unity
By Majumdar RC & A D Pusalker (eds.) (1951) The Age of imperial unity

Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bombay. This volume deals with the history and culture of India from the beginning of ancient history to the Buddha, the rise of Chandragupta and the reign of Asoka.

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aryabhatta-indian-work-on-mathematics-astronomy1

Aryabhatiya
Written By Aryabhatta translated by Walter Eugene Clarke of Harvard university in 1930

This was the greatest treatise on mathematics and astronomy by Aryabhatta in the 5th century.

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chandragupta-maurya-by-purushottam-lal-bhargava1

Chandragupta Maurya
Written By Purshottam Lal Bhargav in 1935.

The book covers the usual aspects – Chandragupta’s reign, administration, socio-economic factors, literature and arts, but also, legends surrounding the Emperor and Chanakya.

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harsha-charita-by-banbhatta-

Harsha Charita
By Banbhatta – translated by E B Cowell in 1897.

The Harshacharita, is the biography of Indian emperor Harsha by Banabhatta, also known as Bana, who was a Sanskrit writer of seventh-century CE India.

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history-of-mediaeval-hindu-india-being-a-history-of-india-from-600-to-1200-a-d-by-chintaman-vinayak-vaidya

History of mediæval Hindu India
By Chintaman Vinayak Vaidya

This 1921 book covers the history of Hindu medieval India from 600 AD to 1200 AD in great detail.

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history_of_india-by-a-v-williams

History of India volume 1
By A V William Jackson

This is one volume of a 9 volume series. A V William Jackson was a New Yorker who was fascinated by India. This volume contains history from rig veic times to Jainism.

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kadambari-by-banabhatt-and-bhushan-bhatta

Kadambari
By Banabhatt and Bhushan Bhatta

Kādambari is a romantic novel in Sanskrit. It was substantially composed by Bāṇabhaṭṭa in the first half of the 7th century CE, who did not survive to see it through completion. The novel was completed by Banabhatta’s son Bhushanabhatta, according to the plan laid out by his late father.

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prithvi-raj-rasaou-mata-prasad2

Prithvi Raj Rasaou

This is a Brajbhasha epic poem about the life of the 12th century Indian king Prithviraj Chauhan (c. 1166-1192 CE). It is attributed to Chand Bardai, who according to the text, was a court poet of the king.

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surgical-instruments-oh-hindus-and-other-ancient-empires

The Surgical Instruments of the Hindus
By Girindranath Mukhopadyay in 1909

The Surgical Instruments of the Hindus with a Comparative Study of the Surgical Instruments of the Greek, Roman, Arab and the Modern European Surgeons.

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the-ajivikas-by-beni-madhab-barua

The Ajivikas
By B M Barua 1920

This is scholarly elaboration of the ancient Indian sect of Ajivikas. It was a nastik (or heterodox) school of thought from 5th century BC and a major rival of Buddhism and Jainism. They were prevalent during Emperor Bindusara and his more famous son Ashoka’s times.

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the-early-history-of-india-from-600-b-c-to-the-muhammadan-conquest-including-the-invasion-of-alexander-the-great

The Early History of India
By Vincent Smith in 1904

This work covers the history of India from 600 BC to the Islamic conquests.

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universities-in-ancient-india-by-d-g-apte

Universities of Ancient India
By A. G. Apte

The universities of ancient India have a prouder history than that of their counterparts in the ancient western world. At least one of them, viz., Takshaiila, flourished several centuries before the Universities of Alexandria, Athens and Constantinople. The universities of ancient India had also a more impressive teaching and research programed. This book covers 4 universities of Nalanda, Takshila, Valabhi and Vikramsila.

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ancient-india-by-megasthenes-and-arrian

Ancient India
By Megasthenes and Arrian

Megasthenes (c. 350 – c. 290 BC) was a Greek ethnographer and explorer in the Hellenistic period, author of the work Indika.[1] He was born in Asia Minor and became an ambassador of Seleucus I Nicator of the Seleucid dynasty possibly to Chandragupta Maurya in Pataliputra, India.[2] However the exact date of his embassy is uncertain. Scholars place it before 298 BCE, the date of Chandragupta’s death.

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Bija-ganita-by-Bhaskara

Bija Ganita
By Bhaskara

Bijaganita was Indian mathematician Bhāskara II’s treatise on algebra. It is the second volume of his main work Siddhānta Shiromani, Sanskrit for “”Crown of treatises,”” alongside Lilāvati, Grahaganita and Golādhyāya. In Bijaganita Bhāskara II refined Jayadeva’s way of generalization of Brahmagupta’s approach to solving indeterminate quadratic equations, including Pell’s equation which is known as chakravala method or cyclic method. Bijaganita is the first text to recognize that a positive number has two square roots.

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Brahmasphu-asiddhanta-vol-1-by-Brahmagupta

Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta vol 1
By Brahmagupta

Written c. 628, in Sanskrit, it contains ideas including a good understanding of the mathematical role of zero, rules for manipulating both negative and positive numbers. It also contains a method for computing square roots, methods of solving linear and some quadratic equations, and rules for summing series, Brahmagupta’s identity, and the Brahmagupta’s theorem. The book was written completely in verse.

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Brahmasphu-asiddhanta-vol-2-by-Brahmagupta

Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta vol 2
By Brahmagupta

Written c. 628, in Sanskrit, it contains ideas including a good understanding of the mathematical role of zero, rules for manipulating both negative and positive numbers. It also contains a method for computing square roots, methods of solving linear and some quadratic equations, and rules for summing series, Brahmagupta’s identity, and the Brahmagupta’s theorem. The book was written completely in verse.

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Brahmasphu-asiddhanta-vol-3

Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta vol 3
By Brahmagupta

Written c. 628, in Sanskrit, it contains ideas including a good understanding of the mathematical role of zero, rules for manipulating both negative and positive numbers. It also contains a method for computing square roots, methods of solving linear and some quadratic equations, and rules for summing series, Brahmagupta’s identity, and the Brahmagupta’s theorem. The book was written completely in verse.

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Brahmasphu-asiddhanta-vol-4-by-Brahmagupta

Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta vol 4
By Brahmagupta

Written c. 628, in Sanskrit, it contains ideas including a good understanding of the mathematical role of zero, rules for manipulating both negative and positive numbers. It also contains a method for computing square roots, methods of solving linear and some quadratic equations, and rules for summing series, Brahmagupta’s identity, and the Brahmagupta’s theorem. The book was written completely in verse.

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Gita-govinda-by-Jayadeva

Gita govinda
By Jayadeva

The Gita Govinda is a work composed by the 12th-century poet, Jayadeva, born in either the village of Kenduli Sasan in Odisha or the village of Jayadeva Kenduli in Bengal are likely candidates though another Kenduli in Mithila is also a possibility. Recent studies point to the Odisha birthplace as the more likely one. It describes the relationship between Krishna and the gopis (female cow herders) of Vrindavana, and in particular one gopi named Radha.

The Gita Govinda is organized into twelve chapters. Each chapter is further sub-divided into twenty four divisions called Prabandhas. The prabandhas contain couplets grouped into eights, called Ashtapadis.

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Kiratarjuniya-by-Bharavi

Kiratarjuniya in Sanskrit
By Bhairavi

Kirātārjunīya is a Sanskrit kavya by Bhāravi, written in the 6th century or earlier. It is an epic poem in eighteen cantos describing the combat between Arjuna and lord Shiva at Indrakeeladri hills in present-day Vijayawada in the guise of a kirāta or mountain-dwelling hunter. Along with the Naiṣadhacarita and the Shishupala Vadha, it is one of the larger three of the six Sanskrit mahakavyas, or great epics.[1] It is noted among Sanskrit critics both for its gravity or depth of meaning, and for its forceful and sometimes playful expression.

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Kumarsambhavan-by-Kalidasa

Kumarsambhavan
By Kalidasa

Kumārasambhavam is a Sanskrit epic poem by Kālidāsa. The Kumārasambhava is widely regarded as one of Kālidāsa’s finest works, a paradigmatic example of Kāvya poetry. The style of description of spring set the standard for nature metaphors pervading many centuries of Indian literary tradition. Kumarasambhava basically talks about the birth of Kumara (Kārtikeya / Murugan), the son of Shiva and Parvati. The period of composition is uncertain, although Kālidāsa is thought to have lived in the 5th century AD.

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Manasollasa

Manasollāsa
By Someshvara III

The Manasollāsa, also known as Abhilashitartha Chintamani, is an early 12th-century Sanskrit text composed by the South Indian king Someshvara III of the Kalyani Chalukya dynasty. The text is an encyclopedic work covering topics such as polity, governance, ethics, economics, astronomy, astrology, rhetoric, veterinary medicine, horticulture, perfumes, food, architecture, sports, painting, poetry and music. The text is a valuable source of socio-cultural information on 11th- and 12th-century India.

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Meghaduta-by-Kalidas

Meghaduta
By Kalidas

A poem of 111 stanzas, it is one of Kālidāsa’s most famous works. The work is divided into two parts, Purva-megha and Uttara-megha. It recounts how a yakṣa, a subject of King Kubera (the god of wealth), after being exiled for a year to Central India for neglecting his duties, convinces a passing cloud to take a message to his wife at Alaka on Mount Kailāsa in the Himālaya mountains. The yakṣa accomplishes this by describing the many beautiful sights the cloud will see on its northward course to the city of Alakā, where his wife awaits his return.

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Raghuvamsha-in-Sanskrit-by-Kalidas

Raghuvamsha in Sanskrit
By Kalidas

Raghuvamsha is a Sanskrit mahakavya (epic poem) by the most celebrated Sanskrit poet Kalidasa. Though an exact date of composition is unknown, the poet is presumed to have flourished in the 5th Century CE.[1] It narrates, in 19 sargas (cantos), the stories related to the Raghu dynasty, namely the family of Dilipa and his descendants up to Agnivarna, who include Raghu, Dasharatha and Rama.The warrior Raghu leads a military expedition to Transoxiana. He defeats and subjugates local people along the way (presumably on his march through Central Asia) until he reaches the Vankshu, as the ancient Indians called the Oxus River. There, Raghu’s army battles the Hepthalites, or White Huns, whom the Indians called Hunas and Mlecchas (barbarians).

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Rajatarangini-by-Kalhana

Rajatarangini
By Kalhana

Rajatarangini (Rājataraṃgiṇī, “”The River of Kings””) is a metrical legendary and historical chronicle of the north-western Indian subcontinent, particularly the kings of Kashmir. It was written in Sanskrit by Kashmiri historian Kalhana in the 12th century CE.[1] The work consists of 7826 verses, which are divided into eight books called Tarangas (“”waves””).

The Rajataringini provides the earliest source on Kashmir that can be labeled as a “”historical”” text on this region. Although inaccurate in its chronology, the book still provides an invaluable source of information about early Kashmir and its neighbors in the north western parts of the Indian subcontinent, and has been widely referenced by later historians and ethnographers.

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Surya-Siddhanta-in-English

Surya Siddhanta in English

The Surya Siddhanta is the name of multiple treatises (siddhanta) in Indian astronomy. It has rules laid down to determine the true motions of the luminaries, which conform to their actual positions in the sky. It gives the locations of several stars other than the lunar nakshatras and treats the calculation of solar eclipses as well as solstices, e.g., summer solstice 21/06. Significant coverage is on kinds of time, length of the year of gods and demons, day and night of god Brahma, the elapsed period since creation, how planets move eastwards and sidereal revolution. The Earth’s diameter and circumference are also given. Eclipses and color of the eclipsed portion of the moon are mentioned.

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Surya-Siddhanta-in-Sanskrit

Surya Siddhanta in Sanskrit

The Surya Siddhanta is the name of multiple treatises (siddhanta) in Indian astronomy. It has rules laid down to determine the true motions of the luminaries, which conform to their actual positions in the sky. It gives the locations of several stars other than the lunar nakshatras and treats the calculation of solar eclipses as well as solstices, e.g., summer solstice 21/06. Significant coverage is on kinds of time, length of the year of gods and demons, day and night of god Brahma, the elapsed period since creation, how planets move eastwards and sidereal revolution. The Earth’s diameter and circumference are also given. Eclipses and color of the eclipsed portion of the moon are mentioned.

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Nyaya-sutras-of-Gautama

The Nyaya Sutras
By Akṣapāda Gautama

The Nyāya Sūtras is an ancient Indian Sanskrit text and the foundational text of the Nyaya school of Hindu philosophy. The date when the text was composed, and the biography of its author is unknown, but variously estimated between 6th-century BCE and 2nd-century CE. The text may have been composed by more than one author, over a period of time.The text consists of five books, with two chapters in each book, with a cumulative total of 528 aphoristic sutras, about rules of reason, logic, epistemology and metaphysics.

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The-Kama-Sutra-of-Vatsyayana

Kamasutra
By Vatsyayana

The Kama Sutra is an ancient Indian Hindu text written by Vātsyāyana. It is widely considered to be the standard work on human sexual behavior in Sanskrit literature.

A portion of the work consists of practical advice on sexual intercourse. It is largely in prose, with many inserted anustubh poetry verses. “”Kāma”” which is one of the four goals of Hindu life, means desire including sexual desire the latter being the subject of the textbook, and “”sūtra”” literally means a thread or line that holds things together, and more metaphorically refers to an aphorism (or line, rule, formula), or a collection of such aphorisms in the form of a manual.

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A Cultural History of India
By A.L. Basham

A. L. Basham, a renowned historian, has compiled in this book, A Cultural History Of India, an examination of India’s cultural heritage through the ages. The book has contributions from scholars around the world. It examines India’s legacy in the fields of religion, philosophy, arts, music, architecture, science and literature. It covers Indian history from ancient times to colonial times. A Cultural History Of India is divided into four parts. The first part covers ancient history. The second part focuses on the Muslim invaders and the fall of the ancient Hindu kingdoms. The third section of A Cultural History Of India covers the coming of the western Colonial powers, their gradual conquest of the country, and the end of the Muslim period. The final part focuses on India and her relationship with the rest of the world.

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Ancient-India-by-Ketias-the-Knidian

Ancient India
By Ktesias

Ctesias (/ˈtiːʒəs/; Ancient Greek: Κτησίας, Ktēsíās), also known as Ctesias the Cnidian or Ctesias of Cnidus, was a Greek physician and historian from the town of Cnidus in Caria. Ctesias, who lived in the 5th century BC, was physician to Artaxerxes Mnemon, whom he accompanied in 401 BC on his expedition against his brother Cyrus the Younger.

Ctesias was the author of treatises on rivers, and on the Persian revenues, of an account of India entitled Indica (Ἰνδικά), and of a history of Assyria and Persia in 23 books, called Persica (Περσικά), written in opposition to Herodotus in the Ionic dialect, and professedly founded on the Persian Royal Archives.

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Ancient-India-as-Described-by-Ptolemy-by-J-W-Crindle

Ancient India as Described by Ptolemy
By J W Crindle

Claudius Ptolemy (AD 100 – c. 170) was a Greco-Egyptian writer, known as a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology. He lived in the city of Alexandria in the Roman province of Egypt, wrote in Koine Greek, and held Roman citizenship. Beyond that, few reliable details of his life are known. His famous book “”the Geography””, is a thorough discussion of the geographic knowledge of the Greco-Roman world includes some pages on India as it was known to the Greeks of those times.

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Auchtyalamkara-of-Kshemendra-by-Peter-Paterson

Auchtyalamkara of Kshemendra
By Peter Paterson – 1885

Kshemendra (c. 990 – c. 1070 CE) was a Kashmirian poet of the 11th century, writing in Sanskrit. The first of the two papers that follow contains a short account of a small treatise on rhetoric by the Kashmirian poet, Kshemendra, called the Auchityavicharacharcha. In examining that book I was extremely interested to find that Kshemendra quotes in its entirety a verse, the last pada of which is quoted in Patanjali’s Mahabhashya, and that ho gives the name of the author of the verse as one Kumaradasa. This is the name of one of the authors quoted in the Anthologies of Vallabhadeva and Sarngadhara : and I set out the verses known from these sources to be by this poet in support of the contention that a writer who quotes Kumaradasa cannot have lived in the second century before Christ.

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History-of-medieval-hindu-India-by-C-V-Vaidya.

History of medieval Hindu India vol 1
By C V Vaidya – 1921

In these volumes it is proposed to give the history in detail of India during what may be called the Medieival Hindu period.. The ancient history of India also sub-divides itself into three main periods which may be called the Aryan period, the Aryo-Buddhistic period and the Hindu period. The Aryan period commencing from the most ancient times variously considered to go back to from 4000 to 2000 B. C. comes down to about 300 B. C. and closes with the invasion of India by Alexander.

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Life-in-ancient-India

Life in ancient India
By Srinivas Iyengar 1912

This is the first of a series of monographs on the History of the Indian people, in which an attempt will be made to reconstruct the life of the people of India, age by age from Indian literature, epigraphical records, and records of foreign travelers. This is a work that can best be done by Indian writers trained in methods of critical investigation; foreign scholars can scarcely do it well, for they have not that intimate knowledge of Indian life as it is to-day, especially in villages which are remote from the railway and the telegraph and the influence of European commerce and where are still preserved most of the customs described in the following pages ; and without such knowledge, work of this kind cannot be well done.

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Nagananda-by-Sri-Harsha

Nagananda of king Harsha
translated by Vidushekara Bhattacharya

Nagananda (Joy of the Serpents) is a Sanskrit play attributed to king Harsha (ruled 606 C.E. – 648 C.E.). Nagananda is among the most acclaimed Sanskrit dramas. Through five acts, it tells the popular story of Jimutavahana’s self-sacrifice to save the Nagas. The unique characteristic of this drama is the invocation to lord Buddha in the Nandi verse, which is considered as one of the best examples of the dramatic compositions. Nagananda is the story of how prince Jimutavahana gives up his own body to stop a sacrifice of serpents to the divine Garuda.

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Natya-Shastra-Translation-Volume-1-by-Bharat-Muni

Natya Shastra Translation Volume 1
By Bharat Muni

The Nāṭya Śāstra (Sanskrit: नाट्य शास्त्र, Nāṭyaśāstra) is a Sanskrit Hindu text on the performing arts. The text is attributed to sage Bharata, and its first complete compilation is dated to between 200 BCE and 200 CE,but estimates vary between 500 BCE and 500 CE.

The text consists of 36 chapters with a cumulative total of 6000 poetic verses describing performance arts. The subjects covered by the treatise include dramatic composition, structure of a play and the construction of a stage to host it, genres of acting, body movements, make up and costumes, role and goals of an art director, the musical scales, musical instruments and the integration of music with art performance.

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Natya-Shastra-Translation-Volume-2-by-Bharat-Muni

Natya Shastra Translation Volume 2
By Bharat Muni

The Nāṭya Śāstra (Sanskrit: नाट्य शास्त्र, Nāṭyaśāstra) is a Sanskrit Hindu text on the performing arts. The text is attributed to sage Bharata, and its first complete compilation is dated to between 200 BCE and 200 CE,but estimates vary between 500 BCE and 500 CE.

The text consists of 36 chapters with a cumulative total of 6000 poetic verses describing performance arts. The subjects covered by the treatise include dramatic composition, structure of a play and the construction of a stage to host it, genres of acting, body movements, make up and costumes, role and goals of an art director, the musical scales, musical instruments and the integration of music with art performance.

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Palas-of-Bengal-by-Rakhal-Das-Banerjee

Palas of Bengal
By R D Banerjee

The ground plan of a history of Eastern India from 800 to 1200 a.m. has already been sketched out by Mhamahopadhyaya Hara Prasad Sastrl in his short introduction to Sandhyakaranandi’s Ramacarita. At that time I intended to develop it and add all the available material in a fresh article. This article was finished in October 1911. It was revised by Dr. J. Ph. Vogel, Ph.D., then Officiating Director (General of Archaeology, and submitted to the Society. For various reasons, the publication of this part of the Memoirs has been delayed, among which may be mentioned the loss of several impressions of inscriptions.

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Prehistoric-ancient-and-Hindu-India-by-R-D-Banerjee

Prehistoric ancient and Hindu India
By R D Banerjee

Modern research has greatly extended our knowledge of early India. As the “”miracle of Greece”” no longer obtains in consequence of the revelations of the archaeologists in Crete and elsewhere in the Near East, so there is in India no longer an “” Aryan miracle “”. It has been established that a wonderful pre-Aryan civilization existed in the Indus valley many centuries before the period of the Aryan intrusions, and that it was of higher and more complex character than can be gathered from the patriotic writers who celebrated the achievements of the famous Vedic Age. The discovery at Harappa on the Ravi in the Montgomery district of the Panjab of “” seals “” lettered in a strange script, which had been unearthed from time to time.

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Sri-Harsha-of-Kannauj-by-K-M-Panikkar

Sri Harsha of Kannauj
By K M Panikkar 1922

Of Harsha’s ancestry not much is known. Even his poetic biographer Bana, unable to connect his hero with either of the two mythological progenitors of Indian royal families, the sun and the moon, contents himself by saying that “” there arose a monarch named Pushpabhuti, framed as it were with the compound splendor of all primeval kings 1 from whom was descended a long line of illustrious monarchs.”” Bana, however, does not mention the name of any of them till we come down to Prabhakara Vardhana, (surnamed ‘the mighty’ Pratapa Slla) the father of Harsha. By the patient researches of modern scholars, we are now able to trace Harsha’s ancestors to three generations before Prabhakara Vardhana.

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The-invasion-of-India-by-Alexander-the-great-by-J-W-Crindle

The invasion of India by Alexander the great as described by Arrian, Curtius, Diodoros, Plutarch and Justin
By J W Crindle

This work is the fifth of a series which may be entitled Ancient India as described by the Classical Writers, since it was projected to supply annotated translations of all the accounts of India which have descended to us from classical antiquity. The volumes which have already appeared contain the fragments of the Indika of Ktesias the Knidian, and of the Indika of Megasthenes, the Indika of Arrian, the Periplous of the Erythraian Sea by an unknown author, and- Ptolemy’s Geography of India and the other countries of Eastern Asia. A sixth work containing translations of the chapters in Strabo’s Geography which describe India and Ariana, is in preparation, and will complete the series.

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Paramara-Rulers-of-Malava-by-Fitz-Edward-Hall

The Parmara rules of Malva
article by Fitz Edward Hall

The Paramara dynasty (IAST: Paramāra) were a Rajput royal house that ruled Malwa and surrounding areas in west-central India between 9th and 14th centuries.The Paramara dynasty was established in either 9th or 10th century. The earliest extant Paramara inscriptions, issued by the 10th century ruler Siyaka, have been found in Gujarat and suggest that he was a vassal of the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta. Around 972 CE, Siyaka sacked the Rashtrakuta capital Manyakheta, and established the Paramaras as a sovereign power.

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The-Wonder-that-was-India-by-A-L-Basham

The Wonder that was India
By A L Basham

The Wonder That Was India: A Survey of the Culture of the Indian Sub-Continent Before the Coming of the Muslims, is a book on Indian history written by Arthur Llewellyn Basham and first published in 1954. The book was aimed at a western audience. Basham, in the book, has attempted to correct the negative stereotypes of India created by authors like James Mill, Thomas Babington Macaulay and Vincent Arthur Smith.

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Bakhshali-Manuscript

The Bakhshali Manuscript

The Bakhshali Manuscript is a mathematical manuscript written on birch bark which was found near the village of Bakhshali in 1881. It is notable for being “the oldest extant manuscript in Indian mathematics. The manuscript is a compendium of rules and illustrative example. Each example is stated as a problem, the solution is described, and it is verified that the problem has been solved. The sample problems are in verse and the commentary is in prose associated with calculations. The problems involve arithmetic, algebra and geometry, including mensuration. The topics covered include fractions, square roots, arithmetic and geometric progressions, solutions of simple equations, simultaneous linear equations, quadratic equations and indeterminate equations of the second degree. The manuscript is written in an earlier form of Śāradā script, which was mainly in use from the 8th to the 12th century, in the northwestern part of India, such as Kashmir and neighbouring regions.[1] The language is the Gatha dialect (which is a combination of the ancient Indian languages of Sanskrit and Prakrit).

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Siddanta-Siromani

Siddhanta Shiromani

Siddhānta Śiromani (Sanskrit: सिद्धांत शिरोमणी for “Crown of treatises” is the major treatise of Indian mathematician Bhāskara II. He wrote the Siddhānta Śiromani in 1150 when he was 36 years old. The work is composed in Sanskrit Language in 1450 verses. The name of the book comes from his daughter, Leelāvati. It is the first volume of the Siddhānta Śiromani. The book contains thirteen chapters, 278 verses, mainly arithmetic and measurement. It is the second volume of Siddhānta Shiromani. It is divided into six parts, contains 213 verses and is devoted to algebra. Ganitadhyaya and Goladhyaya of Siddhanta Shiromani are devoted to astronomy. All put together there are about 900 verses. (Ganitadhyaya has 451 and Goladhyaya has 501 verses).

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Corporate-Life-In-Ancient-India-by-R-C-Majumdar

Corporate-Life-In-Ancient-India
By R C Majumdar

At the beginning of the year 1919 1 submitted a printed thesis entitled ”Corporate Life in Ancient India “” for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy of the Calcutta University. When the thesis was approved, about three hundred copies which still remained with me were offered for sale. This is the short history of the first edition of this work.

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India-in-the-times-of-Varahamihira-by-Ajay-Mitra-Shastri

India in the times of Varahamihira
by Ajay Mitra Shastri

Varamihira Brhat Samhita is a veritable mine of information for the cultural history of the period during which he flourished. Its importance for the political history of the period is no less as would appear from the mention in the Maharajya Dhiraja. Dr Shastri proved that Varhamihiras Panacasiddhantika was written in 505 AD. Varahamihira therefore belonged to the late Gupta age. An important period in the ancient history of India.

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Leelawati-by-Bhaskaracharya

Leelawati
by Bhaskaracharya

The Līlāvatī is Indian mathematician Bhāskara II’s treatise on mathematics, written in 1150. It is the first volume of his main work, the Siddhānta Shiromani,alongside the Bijaganita, the Grahaganita and the Golādhyāya.

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Madhabiya-Dhatubritti

Madhabiya Dhatubritti

This is a very respected Sanskrit commentary on the Dhaatu Paath by the great Vaidik commentator Sayanacharya.Sāyaṇa (Kannada; with honorific Sāyaṇācārya; died 1387) was an important commentator on the Vedas. He flourished under King Bukka Raya I and his successor Harihara II, in the Vijayanagara Empire of South India. He was the son of Māyaṇa, and the pupil of Vishnu Sarvajna and of Samkarananda. More than a hundred works are attributed to him, among which are commentaries on nearly all parts of the Vedas; some were carried out by his pupils, and some were written in conjunction with his brother Vidyāraṇya or Mādhava.

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Saundarya-Lahari-by-Swami-Vishnuteerth-Maharaj

Saundarya Lahari
by Swami Vishnuteerth Maharaj

Meaning “”Waves Of Beauty”” is a famous literary work in Sanskrit believed to be written by sage Pushpadanta and Adi Shankara.[1] Some believe the first part “”Ananda Lahari”” was etched on mount Meru by Ganesha himself (or by Pushpadanta). Sage Gaudapada, the teacher of Shankar’s teacher Govinda Bhagavadpada, memorised the writings of Pushpadanta which was carried down to Adi Shankara. Its hundred and three shlokas (verses) eulogize the beauty, grace and munificence of Goddess Parvati / Dakshayani, consort of Shiva. The Soundarya Lahari is not only the collections of holy hymns, but also a tantra textbook,giving instructions Puja on SRI-YANTHRA and worshipping method, 100 different hymns, 100 different yantras, almost one to each sloka; describes tantric ways of performing devotion connected to each specific sloka; and details the results ensuring therefrom.

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Patiganita-by-Sridharacharya

Patiganita
By Sridharacharya

Sridhar Acharya (Bengali: শ্রীধর আচার্য; c. 750 CE, India – c. ? India) was an Indian mathematician, Sanskrit pandit and philosopher. He was born in Bhurishresti (Bhurisristi or Bhurshut) village in South Radha (at present day Hughli) in the 8th Century AD. He contributed a lot in mathematics. He was known for 2 treatises: Trisatika (nitsometimes called the Patiganitasara) and the Patiganita. His major work Patiganitasara was named Trisatika because it was written in three hundred slokas. The book discusses counting of numbers, measures, natural number, multiplication, division, zero, squares, cubes, fraction, rule of three, interest- calculation, joint business or partnership and mensuration.

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Social-life-in-the-grihya-sutras

Social life in the grihya sutras
by Dr M V Apte

This is a handbook of domestic and social life in the Vedic ages. The grihya sutras which tersely summarize the accounts of daily rituals, ceremonies and sanskaras of our Vedic ancestors. They are reliable and realistic though embellishments.

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Tantraloka-by-Abhinav-Gupta

Tantraloka
by Abhinav Gupta

Tantrāloka (Sanskrit तन्त्रालोक ) is the masterwork of Abhinavagupta on Kashmir Shaivism, who was in turn the most revered Kashmir Shaivism master. Abhinavagupta (c. 950 – 1016 AD was a philosopher, mystic and aesthetician from Kashmir.[3] He was also considered an influential musician, poet, dramatist, exegete, theologian, and logician – a polymathic personality who exercised strong influences on Indian culture. On account of its size and scope it is a veritable encyclopedia of nondual Shaivism, a treasure text containing the synthesis of the 64 monistic āgamas and all the schools of Kashmir Shaivism.

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Vivada-Chintamani

Vivada Chintamani

A Succinct Commentary on the Hindoo Law, Prevalent in Mithila, From the Original Sanskrit of Vachaspati Misra.

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