Sikh, Rajput and Kashmiri history

a-history-of-the-sikhs

A history of the Sikhs from the origin of the nation to the battles of the Sutlej
By Joseph Davey Cunningham (1812-1851)

The author spent eight years of his service (from 1838 to 1846) in close contact with the Sikhs, and that too during a very important period of their history. His experiences began with the interview between Lord Auckland and Ranjit Singh in 1838 and lasted down to the close of the first Sikh War, when he became resident in Bhopal. The result of his eight years’ residence was this book that gives a detailed account of Sikhg history up to 1849.

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bardic-and-historical-survey-of-rajputana

Bardic and Historical Survey of Rajputana – A descriptive catalogue of bardic and historical manuscripts
By Luigi Pio Tessitori Tessitort

Bardic and Historical Manuscripts includes all kinds of works in prose, such as those meant by the Marwari terms khyata, vata, vigata, vamsvali, pidhis and similar ones, all of which partake more or less of an historical character. Bardic poems and songs, as well as works on non-historical subjects, when found interspersed in the same manuscripts, have also been described, though much more cursorily. In quoting extracts, preference has often been given to passages containing dates, figures, names, etc., or supplying some new information.

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gulab-singh-1792-1858-founder-of-kashmir-by-k-m-panikkar

Gulab Singh (1792 – 1858) – Founder of Kashmir
By K.M.Panikkar

This short memoir traces the life story of Maharajah Gulab Singh, is meant to fill a gap in the history of India in the nineteenth century.Gulab Singh’s name is known to students of Indian history only as an overgrown feudatory of the Lahore kingdom, who, taking advantage of the confusion which followed the death of Ranjit Singh, was able to carve out a State for himself. The establishment of the Jammu and Kashmir State by the treaty of 1846, and its recognition later in the century as one of the great internal States of India, have obscured the essential greatness of Gulab Singh as a soldier and a statesman. When Ranjit Singh died in 1839, Gulab Singh was easily the most influential personage in the Sikh Empire and was its chief feudatory.

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origin-of-the-sikh-power-in-the-punjab-and-political-life-of-maharaja-ranjit-singh

Origin of the Sikh power in the Punjab and political life of Maharaja Ranjit Singh
By Henry T Princep in 1834

A most detailed and interesting first hand account of the great Sikh king’s Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s life by a British civil servant who lived in those times.

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annals-and-antiquities-of-rajasthan-by-james-tod-vol-1

Annals and antiquities of Rajasthan vol 1
By James Todd – 1920

No one can undertake with a light heart the preparation of a new edition of Colonel Tod’s great work, The Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan. But the leading part which the Rajputs have taken in the Great War, the summoning of one of their princes to a seat at the Imperial Conference, the certainty that as the result of the present cataclysm they will be entitled to a larger share in the administration of India, have contributed to the desire that this classical account of their history and sociology should be presented in a shape adapted to the use of the modern scholar and student of Indian history and antiquities.

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annals-and-antiquities-of-rajasthan-by-james-tod-vol-2

Annals and antiquities of Rajasthan vol 2
By James Todd – 1920

No one can undertake with a light heart the preparation of a new edition of Colonel Tod’s great work, The Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan. But the leading part which the Rajputs have taken in the Great War, the summoning of one of their princes to a seat at the Imperial Conference, the certainty that as the result of the present cataclysm they will be entitled to a larger share in the administration of India, have contributed to the desire that this classical account of their history and sociology should be presented in a shape adapted to the use of the modern scholar and student of Indian history and antiquities.

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annals-and-antiquities-of-rajasthan-by-james-tod-vol-3

Annals and antiquities of Rajasthan vol 3
By James Todd – 1920

No one can undertake with a light heart the preparation of a new edition of Colonel Tod’s great work, The Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan. But the leading part which the Rajputs have taken in the Great War, the summoning of one of their princes to a seat at the Imperial Conference, the certainty that as the result of the present cataclysm they will be entitled to a larger share in the administration of India, have contributed to the desire that this classical account of their history and sociology should be presented in a shape adapted to the use of the modern scholar and student of Indian history and antiquities.

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banda-singh-bahadur-rebellion-by-g-e-grewal-and-irfan-habib

Banda Singh Bahadur Rebellion
By G E Grewal and Irfan Habib

Banda Singh Bahadur (born Lachman Dev, also known simply as Banda Bahadur, Lachman Das and Madho Das 27 October 1670 – 9 June 1716, Delhi) was a Sikh military commander. At age 15 he left home to become an ascetic, and was given the name ‘’Madho Das’’. He established a monastery at Nānded, on the bank of the river Godāvarī, where in September 1708 he was visited by, and became a disciple of, Guru Gobind Singh, who gave him the new name of Banda Singh Bahadur. Armed with the blessing and authority of Guru Gobind Singh, he assembled a fighting force and led the struggle against the Mughal Empire.

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Eminent-Sikh-Women

Eminent Sikh Women
By Dr M K Gill

This book contains short biographies of various important women in Sikh history.

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A-History-Of-Gujarat-Vol-I-by-Khan-Bahadur

A History of Gujrat vol 1
By Khan Bahadur

The long Muslim period of Gujrat history extending over four and a half centuries has not been treated in a scholarly manner. Last fifty years has seen a great increase in our sources of information not only from editions or translations of formal history from Persian and Arabic but also from bibliography and other contributions by students of epigraphy, numismatics and archaeology.

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A-History-of-the-Sikhs-Second-Edition-Volume-1-by-Kushwant-Singh

A History of the Sikhs Second Edition Volume 1
By Khushwant Singh

First published in 1963, this remains the most comprehensive and authoritative book on the Sikhs. Written in Khushwant Singh’s trademark style to be accessible to a general, non-scholarly audience, the book is based on sound archival research. Volume I covers the social, religious, and political background which led to the formation of the Sikh faith in the fifteenth century. Basing his account on original documents in Persian, Gurmukhi, and English, the author traces the growth of Sikhism and tells of the compilation of its sacred scriptures in the Granth Sahib.

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A-History-of-the-Sikhs-Second-Edition-Volume-2-by-Kushwant-Singh

A History of the Sikhs Second Edition Volume 2
By Khushwant Singh

First published in 1963, this remains the most comprehensive and authoritative book on the Sikhs. Written in Khushwant Singh’s trademark style to be accessible to a general, non-scholarly audience, the book is based on sound archival research. Volume II covers a range of issues related to the Sikh struggle for survival as a separate community-conflict with the English and the collapse of the Sikh kingdom; its consolidation as a part of Britain’s Indian empire; religious and sociological movements born under the impact of new conditions; the growth of political parties-nationalist, Marxist, and cuneal; the fate of the Sikhs in the division of the Puruab and the great exodus from Pakistan; and resettlement of the Sikhs in independent India and the establishment of a Punjabi-speaking state within the Union.

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Guru-Granth-Sahib-English-Translation

Guru Granth Sahib in English

Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi (Gurmukhi): ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਜੀ, Punjabi pronunciation: [ɡʊɾu ɡɾəntʰ sɑhɪb], /ˈɡʊəruː ɡrɑːnθ səˈhɪb/) is the central religious scripture of Sikhism, regarded by Sikhs as the final, sovereign and eternal living Guru following the lineage of the ten human Gurus of the religion.[1] The Adi Granth, the first rendition, was compiled by the fifth Sikh Guru, Guru Arjan (1563–1606). Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh Guru, did not add any of his own hymns; however, he added all 115 of Guru Tegh Bahadur’s hymns to the Adi Granth, and affirmed the text as his successor.[2] This second rendition became known as Guru Granth Sahib.[3] After Guru Gobind Singh died, Baba Deep Singh and Bhai Mani Singh prepared many copies of the work for distribution.[4]

The text consists of 1430 Angs (pages) and 6,000 śabads (line compositions),[5][6] which are poetically rendered and set to a rhythmic ancient north Indian classical form of music.[7] The bulk of the scripture is classified into thirty one rāgas, with each Granth rāga subdivided according to length and author.

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Guru-granth-sahib-original-Gurmukhi

Guru Granth Sahib in Gurmukhi

Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi (Gurmukhi): ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਜੀ, Punjabi pronunciation: [ɡʊɾu ɡɾəntʰ sɑhɪb], /ˈɡʊəruː ɡrɑːnθ səˈhɪb/) is the central religious scripture of Sikhism, regarded by Sikhs as the final, sovereign and eternal living Guru following the lineage of the ten human Gurus of the religion.[1] The Adi Granth, the first rendition, was compiled by the fifth Sikh Guru, Guru Arjan (1563–1606). Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh Guru, did not add any of his own hymns; however, he added all 115 of Guru Tegh Bahadur’s hymns to the Adi Granth, and affirmed the text as his successor.[2] This second rendition became known as Guru Granth Sahib.[3] After Guru Gobind Singh died, Baba Deep Singh and Bhai Mani Singh prepared many copies of the work for distribution.[4]

The text consists of 1430 Angs (pages) and 6,000 śabads (line compositions),[5][6] which are poetically rendered and set to a rhythmic ancient north Indian classical form of music.[7] The bulk of the scripture is classified into thirty one rāgas, with each Granth rāga subdivided according to length and author.

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Hari-Singh-Nalwa-By-Joginder-Singh-Paur

Hari Singh Nalwa
By Joginder Singh Paur

This present work brings out the unique military genius of Hari Singh Nalwa (1791-1837), the celebrated General of the Sikh army. I warmly recommend the book to our readers. Hari Singh Nalwa was a leader of outstanding qualities. He fought in almost all the important battles of the Lahore armies. The campaigns of Multan, Kashmir, Hazara and Peshawar were of classical proportions. The sealing of Indian border against invasions from across the western frontier was a unique contribution to history of India. I hope this study will benefit not only professional historians but also lay readers.

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History-Of-Jammu-State-by-J.-Hutchison-and-J.Ph.Vogel

History Of Jammu State
By J. Hutchison and J.Ph.Vogel – 1921

Jammu state seems originally to have included only a small tract in the valleys of the Tawi and the Chinab, in the outer hills, and extending some way into the plains. At the period of its greatest expansion, under the old dynasty in the eighteenth century, it was bounded on the west by the Chinab, on the north by the Ladha range separating the Tawi from the Chinab, on the east by the States of Chanehni, Bandhralta, Mankot and Jasrota, and on the south by the plain’s. Within this area were embraced several subordinate States, ruled chiefly by branches of the Jamwal family in subjection to Jammu. These were Rihasi, Bhoti, Samba and Dalpatpur, while Akhnur to the west of the Chinab seems to have been similarly ruled. Jammu also held suzerainty over all the States in the outer hills to the east as far as the Ravi, and over Kashtwar and Bhadrwah in the Chinab Valley.

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History-of-Sikhs-Vol-2-Evolution-of-Sikh-Confederacies-by-Hari-Ram-Guptaf

History of Sikhs Vol 2 Evolution of Sikh Confederacies by Hari Ram Guptaf
By Hari Ram Gupta

History of the Sikhs is planned as a five-volume survey by aiming to present a comprehensive view of the rise, growth and development of Sikh thought and action in every direction. The whole series is based on original contemporary sources in Persian, Marathi, Gurmukhi, Urdu, Hindi, and English known to exist in India and abroad. The dominating theme of the second volume is the Mughal-Sikh and Sikh-Afghan contest for the lordship of the Punjab. The first period of the struggle between the Mughal Emperors and the Sikhs under Banda Bahadur lasted from 1709 to 1716, when Banda was executed. The second period of conflict was from 1716 to 1753 between the Sikhs and five Mughal viceroys. The third period extended from 1754 to 1768 in the strife against Ahmad Shah Durrani who had annexed the Punjab in 1752.

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History-of-the-Sikhs-vol-3-1764-1803-by-Hari-Ram-Gupta

History of the Sikhs vol 3(1764-1803)
By Hari Ram Gupta

History of the Sikhs is planned as a five volume survey aiming to present a comprehensive view of the rise, growth and development of Sikh thought and action in every direction. This volume Sikh Domination of the Mughal Empire, 1764-1803 is third in the series. The whole series is based on original contemporary sources in Persian, Marathi, Gurumukhi, Urdu, Hindi, and English known to exist in India and abroad. The dominating theme of the third volume is how and why the Sikhs missed numerous opportunities of establishing a Sikh State over the whole northern India.

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History-of-Sikhs-Vol-4-The-Sikh-Commonwealth-or-Rise-and-Fall-of-Sikh-Misls-by-Hari-Ram-Gupta

History of Sikhs – Vol 4 Rise and Fall of Sikh Misls
By Hari Ram Gupta

This fourth volume, deals with the rise and fal1 of Sikh misls. In Sikh history this tel1ll was first used by Guru Gobind Singh in the battle Bhangani in 1688, when he organized his forces into eleven misls. Banda Bahadurad opted the same organization of eleven divisions in the battle of Sarhind in May 1719. In 1734 Nawab Kapur Singh divided the Khalsa into Budha Dal and Taruna Dal, both comprising eleven groups. This division was permanently adopted at the formation of Dal Khalsa in 1748.

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History-of-Sikhs-Vol-5-Maharaja-Ranjit-Singh,-1799-1839-by-Hari-Ram-Gupta

History of Sikhs – Vol 5 Maharaja Ranjit Singh, 1799-1839
By Hari Ram Gupta

History of the Sikhs is planned as a five-volume survey aiming to present a comprehensive view of the rise, growth and development of Sikh thought and action in every direction. This volume (V)-The Sikh Lion of Lahore (Maharaja Ranjit Singh, 1799-1839), deals with Ranjit Singh. Ranjit Singh rose from the status of a petty chieftain to become the king of an empire extending from Gilgit and Tibet to the deserts of Sindh and from the Khyber Pass to the Satluj.

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History-of-the-Sikhs-by-Peter-Cunningham

History of the Sikhs
By Peter Cunningham

History of the Sikhs is a work which no serious student of Indian history can do without. Cunningham was never a dilettante; on the other hand he was an expert and an authority. He brought to bear on the subject an unbiased mind, a fastidious fondness for accuracy as well as consummate erudition. No bias warps his judgement, no profitless profusion mars the beauty of his style, no lurking ignorance interrupts the fullness of the narrative.

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History-of-the-Sikhs-vol-1-by-W-L-McGregor

History of the Sikhs vol 1
By W L McGregor – 1846

A classic on Sikh religion, history, Ranjit Singh, colonialism and military. valuable document on a transitional point in Punjab and Sikh history.

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History-Of-The-Sikhs-Vol-I-The-Sikh-Gurus-1469-1708-by-Hari-Ram-Gupta

History Of The Sikhs Vol I – The Sikh Gurus(1469-1708)
By Hari Ram Gupta

History of the Sikhs is a five-volume series dealing with alI aspects-religious, philosophical, political, military, social, economic, and cultural, and the contribution of Sikhism to world civilization. The entire series is based on original contemporary sources in English, Gurmukhi, Hindi, Marathi, Persian, and Urdu known to exist in India and abroad. This first volume gives the story of Ten Masters who provided leadership to the downtrodden people of the Punjab both in religious and political fields for about two centuries. Their aim was to remove the bitterness that had persisted between the rulers and their subjects for the past five hundred years. They wished to create a new society based upon mutual brotherhood, and freedom of thought, expression and action.

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Kalam-Bulleh-Shah

Kalam Bulleh Shah

Syed Abdullah Shah Qadri[1] (Punjabi: سید عبداللہ شاہ قادری) (Shahmukhi), ਸਈਅਦ ਅਬਦੁੱਲਾ ਸ਼ਾਹ ਕਾਦਰੀ (Gurmukhi); 1680–1757) popularly known as Bulleh Shah (بلھے شاہ (Shahmukhi); ਬੁੱਲ੍ਹੇ ਸ਼ਾਹ (Gurumukhi)), was a Punjabi humanist and philosopher. His first spiritual teacher was Shah Inayat Qadiri, a Sufi murshid of Lahore. Bulleh Shah gathered spiritual treasures under the guidance of his murshid and was known for the karamat (miraculous powers) he had.

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Lal-Ded-Jaya-Lal-Kaul

Lal Ded
By Jaya Kaul

Lalleshwar (!320 – 1390 AD) was a s a mystic of the Kashmiri Shaivite sect. She was a creator of the mystic poetry called vatsun or Vakhs, literally “”speech”” (Voice). Known as Lal Vakhs, her verses are the earliest compositions in the Kashmiri language and are an important part in history of modern Kashmiri literature. She inspired and interacted with many Sufis of Kashmir.

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Lal-Ded-Her-life-and-sayings-N-Kotru

Lal Ded Her life and sayings
By Nil Kanth Kotru

No historical documents of Lallas work or any authentic manuscript has come down to us. Her compositions were not labored compositions meant for deliberate literature but spontaneous outpourings of her heart that were passed on from generation to generation by word of mouth. Nilakanth Kotru too has attempted his own English translations of the vaakhs, falling in line with the vaakh-sequence adopted by Jayalal Kaul before him. His meanings and explanations are plain and simple, reflecting, at the same time, a good grasp of the doctrines of Kashmir Shaivism.

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Life-and-accomplishments-of-Hari-Sinh-Nalwa-by-Dr-G-S-Nayyar

Life and accomplishments of Hari Singh Nalwa
By Dr G S Nayyar

Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa. the Marshal of the Khalsa rendered glorious service towards extending the limits of the kingdom of Lahore from 1811 to 1837 up to the natural boundaries of the Punjab and went to the extent of sacrificing his life for this patriotic mission. The map of the Punjab during the rule of Maharaja Ranjit Singh depicts that sealing of the North West Frontier border by the great Sardar is a unique act having international legacy. It was the first time after Anangpal in eight hundred years that the series of invasions from the North-West were checked, the border sealed and the tribes men ruled. Indeed Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa was an astute statesman, a dashing general and a most capable administrator.

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Mahan-Kosh-encyclopaedia-of-Sikh-Literature-Volume-I-by-Kahan-Singh-Nabha

Mahan Kosh – encyclopedia of Sikh Literature Volume I-
By Kahan Singh Nabha

Guru Shabad Ratnakar Mahan Kosh, known by its more popular name of Mahan Kosh, is a Punjabi language encyclopedia which was compiled by Bhai Kahn Singh Nabha over fourteen years. It was the first Punjabi encyclopedia and is considered a groundbreaking work in terms of its impact and its level of scholarship. Mahan Kosh has 64,263 entries arranged in the alphabetical order of the Gurmukhi script covering religious and historical terms in the Sikh canon. Each entry records the etymology and different meanings of a term “”according to its usage at different places in different works”” alongside textual quotations. When words of Perso-Arabic or Sanskrit origin appear they are reproduced in their original scripts to inform readers of their correct pronunciation and connotation.

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Mahan-Kosh-encyclopaedia-of-Sikh-Literature-Volume-2-by-Kahan-Singh-Nabha

Mahan Kosh – encyclopedia of Sikh Literature Volume 2
By Kahan Singh Nabha

Guru Shabad Ratnakar Mahan Kosh, known by its more popular name of Mahan Kosh, is a Punjabi language encyclopedia which was compiled by Bhai Kahn Singh Nabha over fourteen years. It was the first Punjabi encyclopedia and is considered a groundbreaking work in terms of its impact and its level of scholarship. Mahan Kosh has 64,263 entries arranged in the alphabetical order of the Gurmukhi script covering religious and historical terms in the Sikh canon. Each entry records the etymology and different meanings of a term “”according to its usage at different places in different works”” alongside textual quotations. When words of Perso-Arabic or Sanskrit origin appear they are reproduced in their original scripts to inform readers of their correct pronunciation and connotation.

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Mahan-Kosh-encyclopaedia-of-Sikh-Literature-Volume-3-by-Kahan-Singh-Nabha

Mahan Kosh – encyclopedia of Sikh Literature Volume 3
By Kahan Singh Nabha

Guru Shabad Ratnakar Mahan Kosh, known by its more popular name of Mahan Kosh, is a Punjabi language encyclopedia which was compiled by Bhai Kahn Singh Nabha over fourteen years. It was the first Punjabi encyclopedia and is considered a groundbreaking work in terms of its impact and its level of scholarship. Mahan Kosh has 64,263 entries arranged in the alphabetical order of the Gurmukhi script covering religious and historical terms in the Sikh canon. Each entry records the etymology and different meanings of a term “”according to its usage at different places in different works”” alongside textual quotations. When words of Perso-Arabic or Sanskrit origin appear they are reproduced in their original scripts to inform readers of their correct pronunciation and connotation.

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Maharana-Kumbha-sovereign-soldier-scholar-by-Sarda-Har-Bilas

Maharana Kumbha: sovereign, soldier, scholar
By Sarda, Har Bilas – 1917

In writing this book, I have made full use of all the inscriptions of the time of Maharana Kumbha and his father, Mokal many of them unpublished the Kumbhalgarh, the Chitorgarh (Tower of Victory) the Ranpur, the Eklingji temple and the Mount Abu inscriptions, as well as of the celebrated work Eklinga Mahatamya, the only known manuscript copy of which is in the possession of i.ai Bahadur P. Gauri Shankar Ojha to whom my obligations are due for having allowed me free use of it, as well as of the inscriptions in his possession. I have also made use of a manuscript History of Marwar, Mehta Nainsi’s Chronicles (a rare manuscript) Kumbha’s Commentaries on Gita Govinda and Kaviraja Shyamaldas’ Vir Vinod.

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Maharana-Pratap-by-Sri-Ram-Sharma

Maharana Pratap
By Sri Ram Sharma

Prof. Sri Ram has written a spirited account of Pratap Singh, the Rana of Mewar, who defied the might of Akbar. Indomitable courage, the protection of his jungles and ravines and the 19—loyal assistance of the Bhils—themselves conquered by his ancestors—enabled the Rana to resist the armies of what was then the most powerful Empire in the world and to scorn an alliance, matrimonial or feudal, with the Great Moghal.

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Maharana-Pratap-Singh-by-Radha-Krisna-Das

Maharana Pratap Singh
by Radha Krisna Das 1923

This is a Hindi play that elaborates on the epic struggle of Mahrana Pratap against the Mughal monarch Akbar.

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Maharana-Pratapa-by-Onkara-Natha-Vajapeyi

Maharana Pratapa
By Onkara Natha Vajapeyi in Hindi – 1927

Maharana Pratap (9th May 1540 – 1597) ruled the kingdom of Mewar, with his capital at Chittor. Maharana Pratap was the eldest of twenty-five sons and hence given the title of Crown Prince. He was destined to be the 54th ruler of Mewar, in the line of the Sisodiya Rajputs. He is legendary in his opposition of Akbar during a time when all Rajputs had accepted Mughal vassalage.

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Religion-and-short-history-of-Sikhs-By-George-Batley-Scott

Religion and short history of Sikhs
By George Batley Scott 1930

Those who have seen an old Sikh regiment on the maaxh, headed by the venerable white-bearded Granthi, or chaplain, with his Granfh or Bible carefully guarded from flies and dust by attendants with whisks of peacock feathers ; or have seen the men of the regiment, when expecting to go into action, carefully bathing and 12 RELIGION AND SHORT HISTORY OF THE SIKHS combing out their long black locks and rolling them up, so that they might die decently, if die they must, cannot have failed to admire their grand physique, their refined features and martial bearing. A closer acquaintance would have shewn them that there existed a strong bond of fellowship between the men and their British officers. It is therefore natural to ask who are the Sikhs ; and in what do they differ from the hundred and one other races of India ?

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Rise-Growth-And-Fall-Of-The-Bhangi-Misal-by-Dalbir-Singh

Rise Growth And Fall Of The Bhangi Misal
Phd dissertation by Dalbir Singh

The present work mainly relates to and documents the Rise, Growth and Fall Of Bhangi Misal, the most important and famous Misal among the Sikh Misals during eighteenth century. So far no exclusive research work has been essayed, which is directly related to the subject of my research topic. The critical study of Rise, Growth and fall of Bhangi Misal is an endeavor to make a useful addition to the already existing literature of the topic. The relations of Bhangi Misal with the other Misals and with the non Sikh rulers and their style of functioning enable us to determine the exact position of the Bhangi Misal. An in-depth study of the primary /contemporary sources will lead us to some meaningful conclusions and insights.

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Soldierly-Traditions-of-The-Sikhs-Dr.-Hari-Ram-Gupta

Soldierly Traditions of The Sikhs upto 1849
By Dr. Hari Ram Gupta 1849

A soldier anywhere in tI;1e world is expected to possess the .following three qualifications of body, mind arid soul. 1 A military appearance and bearing, implying that he must be neat, smart. and impressive. 2. Certain qualities of mind such as cool!1ess, courage, determination, endurance, discipline, and aversion to desertion under- heavy onslaughts of the enemy. 3. Some traits of character’ like loyalty, restraint over temptation to plunder; sexual indulgence, and tendency to commit unnecessary slaughter of men and destruction of property The following pages will reveal special traits of the character of Sikh soldiery and the soldierly traditions established by them in course of time.

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Tarikh-i-Rashidi-(-History-of-Rashid-)-vol-1-by-Mirza-Muhammad-Haidar

Tarikh-i-Rashidi ( History of Rashid )
By Mirza Muhammad Haidar

Tarikh-i-Rashidi ( History of Rashid ) is a personal memoir combined with a Central Asian history. Mirza Muhammad Haidar devoted this extensive work, written in Kashmir from 1541 to 1546 in two volumes, to contemporary ruler of Kashgaria Abdurashid Khan, son of Sultan Said Khan (descendant of first Moghul Khan Tughluk Timur Khan, grandson of Duwa Khan, great grandson of Chagatai Khan, second son of Chengiz Khan), founder of Saidiya state in Kashgaria in 1514 with active and decisive support of author’s uncle Sayyid Muhammad Mirza. It was translated into English in 1895 by Ney Elias and Edward Denison Ross. Among other events, the Tarikh-i-Rashidi describes the founding of the Kazakh Khanate in 1465 and Muhammad Haidar Dughlat’s personal encounter with one of the early Kazakh rulers, namely Kasym Khan.

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The-history-of-the-Sikhs-by-S-C-Malan

The history of the Sikhs
By S C Malan

A concise account of the Punjab and Cashmere. Its topography, rivers, climate and productions and character of its people, commerce, customs, manufacturers, history, religious institutions, government, administration of the laws, extent of population etc.

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The-Rajatarangini-in-Sanskrit-vol-1-by-Kalhana

The Rajatarangini in Sanskrit vol 1
By Kalhana

Rajatarangini (Rājataraṃgiṇī, “”The River of Kings””) is a metrical legendary and historical chronicle of the north-western Indian subcontinent, particularly the kings of Kashmir. It was written in Sanskrit by Kashmiri historian Kalhana in the 12th century CE. The work consists of 7826 verses, which are divided into eight books called Tarangas (“”waves””). The Rajataringini provides the earliest source on Kashmir that can be labeled as a “”historical”” text on this region. Although inaccurate in its chronology, the book still provides an invaluable source of information about early Kashmir and its neighbors in the north western parts of the Indian subcontinent, and has been widely referenced by later historians and ethnographers.

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The-Rajatarangini-in-Sanskrit-vol-2-by-Kalhana

The Rajatarangini in Sanskrit vol 2
By Kalhana

Rajatarangini (Rājataraṃgiṇī, “”The River of Kings””) is a metrical legendary and historical chronicle of the north-western Indian subcontinent, particularly the kings of Kashmir. It was written in Sanskrit by Kashmiri historian Kalhana in the 12th century CE. The work consists of 7826 verses, which are divided into eight books called Tarangas (“”waves””). The Rajataringini provides the earliest source on Kashmir that can be labeled as a “”historical”” text on this region. Although inaccurate in its chronology, the book still provides an invaluable source of information about early Kashmir and its neighbors in the north western parts of the Indian subcontinent, and has been widely referenced by later historians and ethnographers.

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The-Rajatarangini-in-Sanskrit-vol-3-by-Kalhana

The Rajatarangini in Sanskrit vol 3
By Kalhana

Rajatarangini (Rājataraṃgiṇī, “”The River of Kings””) is a metrical legendary and historical chronicle of the north-western Indian subcontinent, particularly the kings of Kashmir. It was written in Sanskrit by Kashmiri historian Kalhana in the 12th century CE. The work consists of 7826 verses, which are divided into eight books called Tarangas (“”waves””). The Rajataringini provides the earliest source on Kashmir that can be labeled as a “”historical”” text on this region. Although inaccurate in its chronology, the book still provides an invaluable source of information about early Kashmir and its neighbors in the north western parts of the Indian subcontinent, and has been widely referenced by later historians and ethnographers.

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Zafarnamah

Zafarnamah
By Guru Gobind Singh translated by Surinderjit Singh

The Zafarnāma was a victory letter sent by Guru Gobind Singh in 1705 to the Mughal Emperor of India, Aurangzeb after the Battle of Chamkaur. The letter is written in Persian verse.

Guru Gobind Singh sent Bhai Daya Singh to Ahmednagar to give it to Aurangzeb. However it is said that a copy of the Zafarnama, written by himself, was found with the Mahant of Patna Sahib in 1890 and one Babu Jagan Nath made a copy; this copy was somehow misplaced by him. Since Babu Jagan Nath was himself a scholar in Persian language, he could reproduce it from his memory and got it printed in Nagri Parcharni Patrika in Benaras.

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